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Deer Whistles

Hearing Sensitivity in White-tailed Deer

Ken Risenhoover, Jon Hunter, Roy Jacobson, and Glenn Stout

Although white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) vocalizations have been recorded and described, virtually nothing is known about “audition” or the range of hearing by deer and other ungulates. To address this need, I conducted some controlled experiments in collaboration with Dr. Jon Hunter at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Texas A&M University. Audiograms were determined for 5 bottle-raised adult white-tailed deer (3 males, 2 females). While anesthesticized, deer brainstem evoked potentials were recorded from the frontal sinus, vertex, and dorsal border of the zygomatic arch. 


Stimuli consisted of 45-ms pure-tone pips (2 ms rise and fall time) from a McNaural SM-400 amplifier connected to a Nicolet Biomedical Instruments “Pathfinder II” and were delivered using Amplivox audiocup earphones held against the deers ears. Evoked potentials were recorded at intensity levels of up to 95 dB for frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 16 Khz. Estimates of thresholds of hearing sensitivity for each frequency were based on averages for 1000 recorded responses.

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CAN-BUS and OBDII. What are they? CAUTIONS on using de-sulfating battery chargers? What’s the future?

Can-bus is being discussed here primarily to give you some knowledge about it, even though it is not used on Airheads.

Can-Bus is the same as  CANBUSS, CAN-BUSS, Canbus, CanBus). OBD means On Board Diagnostics. OBDII or OBD2 is the second version, in very common use now. Can-Bus MAY be associated with OBD in a vehicle, and it may not be.

Can-Bus is a method, hardware & software; to enable communications between ‘electrical & electronics things’ on your vehicle; these ‘things’ can also be mechanical, with electrical sensors. Can-Bus stands for Controller Area Network, & the ‘Bus’ part is explained later herein.

As you will see in the section on the future, it can do a lot more than just in-vehicle communications between ‘things’. While Can-Bus will be mostly discussed here, as it is installed by BMW in your bike (was not in Airheads), etc., the information may be similar for any system such as all the varieties of OBDII….all modern cars have such a system; & a diagnostic plug to access it. Can-Bus systems have the ability to transmit information between components at high speed, & to actually make changes in the operation of items. OBD can do some of that, but most think OBD is just diagnostic, retaining information in memory, until downloaded for diagnostic work, or such work can include erasing memory, modifying how systems work, etc. But, that is not really true ….it can be a serious part of actually operating the vehicle systems.

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