Oil Filter Installation – R100GS

R100GS Oil Filter Installation

OK, listen up! The picture above shows the parts that come from BMW in the oil filter change kit. I use everything in the kit except the paper gasket (the triangular gray gasket on the left in the picture above) and the small copper washers that I’ve heard are for use with the thermostat housing on other BMWs. I install an oil filter in my R100GS by inserting the parts from right to left as they are shown in the photo. That translates to first the filter (the end with the glued on o-ring goes in first), then TWO steel shims, then the white o-ring, then the black o-ring in the filter canister cover, then the cover itself. I’m careful not to let either the white or black o-rings slip out when positioning the oil filter canister cover. This strategy has worked for the last 125,000 miles, the bike doesn’t leak, and the oil pressure light never comes on when the engine’s running. Having said that, though, I’m told by reputable sources that other GS bikes, and other BMWs that use oil coolers, don’t use the same parts in the same order. The most controversial aspect of the filter change is whether or not you’re going to use the paper gasket that fits between the oil filter canister cover and the engine case. Some folks say to never use the gasket, as it moves the oil filter canister cover away from the end of the oil canister, decreasing compression of the white “O” ring, possibly allowing high pressure oil to leak back into annulus between the canister and the engine case, returning to the sump without first lubricating the motor (the canister is what makes the shelf around the outside of the oil filter, about 3 mm from the end of the oil filter opening). Obviously, this could lead to engine failure, and I’ve communicated with one person that has had this happen. My own take on this, for my own GS, the dimensions of which may differ considerably from yours, is to use two steel shims and not the paper gasket. I determined that two steel shims were necessary by measuring the distance between the oil canister lip and the outer surface of the engine case. Under no circumstances will I use the paper gasket. For a detailed discussion of this issue, see this web page by Snowbum.

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Pulse Air Injection, fuel & evaporative controls systems

Pulse air injection system; evaporative and fuel solenoids systems, as on BMW Airhead Motorcycles Pulse-Air (Clean Air) System Description: Beginning with the 1980 U.S.A. models, BMW incorporated a modification that injected clean air drawn from the aircleaner area into the exhaust ports. Only the rectangular air-cleaner motorcycles have this system. The purpose of this essentially […]

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Oil Discussion

This discussion is also likely applicable to most old flat tappet engines, including some VW, Porsche, old Corvettes, etc.

Revised by the Author 11/05/2007, 11/01/2009; minor revision on 06/02/2014; edit again on 06/20/2018

Over the years, oils have been a popular subject for discussions in our motorcycle publications, club magazines, & on-line LISTS & Forums and Facebook, etc. I am not sure just why that is, but I suspect it has to do with our society of easy fixitus, or ‘I need to do something to feel good’, maybe a panacea for the masses…and maybe male ego, ..and who knows what else!  Certainly there is a large amount of placebo effect. REAL facts are hard to come by, and so-called ‘evidence’ abounds, and may be quite difficult to verify. There is a considerable amount of so-called ‘information’. Some is good, some is anecdotal, some based on testimonials, some sort of like ‘my brother told me of his friend who has a friend who told him that…’; or, ‘my mechanic who has decades of experience, says….

Did you ASK that person just HOW he REALLY got that information he is giving you?   Does that mechanic friend have a sweetheart ‘deal’ with a particular oil’s distributor?  Has he ever REALLY seriously tested oils in Airheads?   How did he test them?   Has he looked at hundreds of Airhead cams and lifters?   Do YOU believe the stories often heard>>that “car oils are plenty good enough, you hardly need pricey specialty oils?”.    Some information even seems scientifically derived, and implies itself to be definitive; in MANY instances this is NOT SO. In addition, there is all that advertising. SORRY, but those hyped additives like Slick50, QMI, etc., and those tests on TV of engines run without oil….these are sideshows; you never hear the entire story of the tests.  DO NOT believe these folks. YES, it is true that you MAY (or may NOT) have SLIGHTLY less friction, SLIGHTLY higher fuel economy, etc. HOWEVER, you will also likely get much increased WEAR (YES, you can have LESS friction and considerably MORE wear!), the product may settle out or ‘clump’, thereby plugging oil passages and oil filters, and LOTS more ills. This can lead to oil starvation and catastrophic engine damage. As for additives like Bardahl or Rislone or Marvel Mystery Oil: don’t use them, they can remove the protective coatings on your engine parts.  
BUT:  There ARE A FEW places that Rislone can be of help, and one is temporary use in a Classic K-bike, to hopefully free up a slipping starter drive clutch….aka Sprag Clutch.

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Oil Coolers

Why an oil cooler?

Air cooled motorcycles can run quite hot in some situations. This includes large amounts of throttle power for long periods of time; pulling a trailer or sidecar where a lot of engine power is needed; extremely bad traffic conditions; use of fairings in general (particularly fairing lower center pieces that are not ventilated). Engine cooling is obviously worse in quite hot weather. Your BMW Airhead engine has more than enough cylinder fins & head fins to dissipate enough engine heat in most circumstances, including some fairly extensive stop & go traffic, & modest speeds pulling a trailer or sidecar. But, there are limits.

For proper engine operation, lubrication, protection, etc., engine oil should operate in a reasonable temperature range after the engine has warmed up; not too cold, not too hot. The oil also needs proper viscosity over its expected temperature range in the engine. Usually, a multi-grade oil such as 20W50 is used in our Airheads. Quality 20W50 motorcycle oil is far better than the old single grades type of oils, & is quite adequate for most conditions, but a thinner oil might be wise if temperatures are at or below freezing; perhaps a 10W40. 10W50 and 15W50 oils are also available.

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Oil and Filter Changes, Procedures, Technical Information, and the $2000 O-Ring

Your /5 and later BMW Airhead motorcycle has a well-deserved reputation for reliability and exceptionally long life.  Regular oil and filter changes based on both time and mileage are necessary.  Use of a quality oil and quality oil filter is highly recommended.  There have been quite a few different filter numbers, filter styles, and methods of fitting them and associated parts such as O-rings, gaskets, shims, and oil cooler attachments, over the years of Airhead production.  This article will attempt to cover all versions,  models,  situations.  HOWEVER, the Author’s website has several articles, number 49 through 51D, THAT SHOULD BE READ; these cover things in more depth; things you REALLY NEED to know.  Please be sure to read all those articles.

Failure to follow recommended procedures, particularly on /7 and later models, or any model with an oil cooler, can result in $$$ repairs. There is a critical white round large rubber O-ring used on the outer cover on models with oil coolers, and also used on later models without coolers. That O-ring must be in good condition, and under proper mechanical mounting pressure, in the proper way. A failure here can result in an engine rebuild costing at least $2000; and if the crankshaft failed, perhaps over $3500. Reading articles 49-51D on the author’s website AND the entire article you are reading will make you an INFORMED owner, highly unlikely to make an expensive mistake…or allow someone else to make such a mistake.    

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Double Row Timing Chains for Dummies

YOU CAN DO IT. You will want to replace everything. Don’t do a rinky dink job that will need to be redone sooner rather than later. Replace the chain $35, crankshaft nose bearing $10 and sprocket $65. Also replace the tensioner $10 and spring $2, and all gaskets and seals $17. These are 2003 prices. I got everything from Motobins and Eurotech. I found that the most worn piece was the crankshaft sprocket. The chain and bearing actually do not wear that much, but that sprocket is half the size of the cam sprocket and made of some soft stuff. The teeth get narrow and pointy. The gap between the teeth gets really wide as the sprocket wears. That’s where most of the slop in the old chain comes from.

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Cylinders, case stud threads, heads, top-end, intake spigots, break-in procedures

If you are installing a camshaft and/or followers, READ http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/cams.htm regarding assembly pre-lubrication.

You may think that pulling off a jug is major surgery & frightening to contemplate. Once you do it, perhaps at a TechDay; or, from the information in this article, you should no longer have much apprehension about doing it yourself.

CAUTION-1:  Every year comes questions about removing a head, perhaps for a simple de-coking (and not pushrod tube seals), & whether it is possible or not….to keep the cylinder sealed at the bottom. In order to do this, you would have to very securely wrap bungees …or via some other means, …around the cylinder fins, across the motor, & all-around the motor. Or some such. You would have to keep the cylinders from moving off the base area in the slightest. This method has been done when I only needed to work on the heads & was being done ‘in the field’, such as at a Rally, or a TechDay, & no O-rings and no piston ring compressor were on hand, etc.  But,  in order to do it, the bungees must be super-tight & evenly surrounding the cylinder, fore & aft. I recommend you not try it. Chances are high that you will not be fully successful & your cylinders will leak oil.

CAUTION-2:  Never reuse a head gasket unless it is a real emergency. While it is possible to leave the two head-to-barrel nuts in place (the ones located at 12:00 and 6:00), & to reuse the gasket by never separating the head from the barrel, this is a poor idea. It MIGHT result in distortion of the assembly. I have not seen that distortion, if the assembly is done fairly quickly, within minutes. Pure speculation anyway. These 2 head nuts (located at 12:00 & 6:00) are supposed to be the first to be loosened, the last to be tightened (in the usual cross-staging).  

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Cylinders (iron, steel, Nikasil, Galnikal). Boring, honing, cylinder shims, plates, gaskets, o-rings.

BMW has used both Galnikal & Nikasil in describing their late cylinders, & never explained the difference. BMW used at least two companies in producing these cylinders for them. They are basically the same process.  Nikasil is a registered trademark of Mahle Gesellshaft (yes, the piston and filter makers). Coated cylinders are done via a plasma process, in Stuttgart, & is a blend of nickel & silicon carbide. Galnikal is a trademarked name for the process used by Kolben Schmidt, which is a major German foundry & castings maker. They also make pistons. If you have Kolben Schmidt cylinders, or other products, they use a symbol which is a letter “K” on top of a letter “S”, and it looks like this:

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Changing a Timing Chain

Getting started: I, having done this a number of times, budget about three to four hours to do this task. I’ve done it in two hours with everything going well. Sometimes you find the exhaust nuts are frozen on. Sometimes the universe is just not going to let you get that keeper/clip on the timing chain until you have REALLY demonstrated you want it. And so on. First time? Four hours: minimum. I would place this in the “advanced intermediate” catagory of dificulty.

Change oil if it is nearing that time. Turn engine to Top-Dead-Center. You have to clear away obstructing parts first: namely the front wheel, fender and exhasut system. Drop the exhaust pipes and headers, pull the front wheel and remove the fender/lower sliders, after draining fork oil (now might be a great time to do fork seals too…). It helps to have the bike on the center stand and a couple of 2X4s to get the front end up. Now remove the tank, disconnect the battery ground cable, loosen the carbs and remove the air cleaner assembly. Remove the starter motor cover, this is the cast aluminium piece on top of the engine block, you may have to undo the coils and move them out of the way to accomplish this.

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